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Sooting propensities of some gasoline surrogate fuels: Combined effects of fuel blending and air vitiation

Abstract : The sooting propensities of binary mixtures of n-heptane and toluene on one hand, and isooctane and toluene on the other hand are evaluated in atmospheric laminar diffusion flames. These hydrocarbons are indeed ma- jor components of any gasoline surrogate fuel. The sooting propensities are here measured in terms of Yield Sooting Indices (YSIs). To this end, two- dimensional maps of soot volume fraction are extracted using Light Extinc- tion Method (LEM) applied to methane diffusion flames doped with the va- pors of the aforementioned mixtures. Burning in a coflowing oxidizer stream, these flames are established over the Santoro’s axis-symmetric burner. The experimental setup allows the air stream to be diluted by carbon dioxide at a content normally encountered in internal combustion engines that use exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The evolution of the sooting propensity as a function of both toluene mole fraction in the binary mixtures and CO2 content of the air stream can then be revealed. The sooting tendencies of both kinds of blends decrease in a very linear way with increasing CO2 content of the air stream. On the opposite, the sooting tendencies of isooctane/toluene blends follow a strongly non-linear relationship with the toluene mole frac- tion due to synergistic effects while YSIs of n-heptane/toluene blends show very linear trends. Interestingly, these trends match those observed on other configurations of diffusion flames, further strengthening the consistency of the YSI methodology. The combined effects of fuel blending and CO2 di- lution are also exhibited. All these trends can be of great importance for further investigations as toluene and isooctane mole fractions found in com- mercially available gasoline and gasoline surrogate fuels are prone to affect soot formation through a strong synergistic effect as identified in current study.
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https://hal.sorbonne-universite.fr/hal-01524478
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Muhammad Kashif, Jérôme Bonnety, Alexis Matynia, Patrick da Costa, Guillaume Legros. Sooting propensities of some gasoline surrogate fuels: Combined effects of fuel blending and air vitiation. Combustion and Flame, 2015, 162, pp.1840 - 1847. ⟨10.1016/j.combustflame.2014.12.005⟩. ⟨hal-01524478⟩

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